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Independent “Sustainability Review” of the Draft

Independent “Sustainability Review” of the Draft

Integrated Transport Plan
(2006-2011) for the City of Cape Town

August 2009

Version 2.1
By
Lisa Kane Sub-consultant to Aurecon
Reviewed by
Lize Jennings, Andrew Janisch and Campbell Tyler
on behalf of Sustainable Energy Africa and the Tran:SIT Programme

2

Introduction
This document provides feedback to the City of Cape Town and their consultants,
Aurecon, on their Draft ‘Integrated Transport Plan (ITP) for the City of Cape Town
(2006-2011) (May 2009). This independent review was a sub-contract from Aurecon
and has been written by Lisa Kane (previously consultant to the Tran:SIT Programme)
and reviewed by staff of Sustainable Energy Africa (SEA) (Lize Jennings, Andrew
Janisch and Campbell Tyler). The review aims to provide comment through a
sustainable transport ‘lens’, which is particularly important since the ITP vision is for
sustainable transport. The review builds on earlier review work by SEA on the
Tran:SIT programme, described in brief below.
In writing this document we acknowledge that policy and strategy development at
the scale undertaken by the City and their consultants is not a trivial task. Clearly
much effort has gone into the development of the ITP document and although this
feedback is critical in places, the intention is not to be divisive. Instead the intention
is to provide frank and constructive feedback, as part of an ongoing learning and
development process regarding sustainability between SEA, the City of Cape Town
(CoCT) and their consultants.
The Tran:SIT programme
The Tran:SIT programme was a three year partnership between the City of Cape and
the NGO Sustainable Energy Africa (SEA), funded by the British High Commission.
The purpose was to build sustainable transport capacity in the City, by ‘working from
the inside’. A dedicated Sustainable Transport Professional (STP) was placed within
the Transport Planning Department, but supported in the role by SEA. Her function
was to focus exclusively on sustainable transport in the City. In addition, through
meetings, focused workshops, technical and advisory support and the work of the
STP, the Tran:SIT programme worked to ensure that sustainable transport remained
on the agenda of the City, in line with their vision. The funding for the project ended
in April 2009 and this Review, although funded differently, forms the final material
output fromTran:SIT.
Structure of this document
A review of any document is, in essence, a judgement. The starting question,
therefore, is “Against what criteria should the ITP document be judged?”
There are three ways to judge a policy document and the process which formed it:
 Is the work externally consistent? (Does it address the legal requirements?
Does it follow any applicable external guidelines? Does it follow the client’s
brief?)

3

 Is the work internally consistent? (Does it have a logical internal progression?
Does it ‘build’ from higher-level goals to detailed implementation steps?
Does it make sense, on its own terms?)
 Is it normatively acceptable? (In this case, does it reflect a sustainable
transport approach, as reflected in the vision?)
This review focuses on the last two points and assumes external consistency. This
document follows the format of an earlier review of the previous ITP 1 and in
common with that earlier work, is strategic, rather than editorial. That is, the issues
highlighted may require some revisiting of the planning thinking, process or analysis
rather than simply re-wording of the document.
The first part of the document is a series of comments grouped according to the
“Bellagio Principles” (Hardi and Zdan 2 ). These principles were developed by the
International Institute for Sustainable Development and they offer a way of judging
whether a sustainable development process, such as the ITP, is “good” or “bad”.
Each page has the following structure:
 The Bellagio principle, in brief and explained (adapted in places to suit local
circumstances).
 A comment on whether the ITP appears to be meeting these principles.
 Extracts from the ITP, to illustrate the comment (if applicable).
 Suggested actions to address the problem.
The second part of the document builds on the findings in the first and asks two
practical questions:
 Is this new ITP likely to deliver more sustainable transport up until 2011?
 Does this ITP create a solid foundation for sustainable ITPs into the future?

1 Review of the Integrated Transport Plan (2006-2007) for the City of Cape Town, March 2007
2 Hardi, P and Zdan, T (1997) Assessing Sustainable Development: Principles in Practice. International
Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg. Available online.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

4
1. GUIDING VISION and OBJECTIVES
The ITP should be guided by a clear vision of sustainable development and objectives
that define that vision

Comment:
Chapter 2 of the ITP lists the relevant visionary statements which guide the ITP and,
aside from the missing Spatial Development Framework vision, is comprehensive.
Some sections, however, are not clearly attributed to sources, and it is unclear what
their legal or policy status is, or whether they are the consultants’ opinion.
Relevant extracts
S 2.2.1: “ The following summary points that are considered important informants to
guide the implementation programme….compact city…a good quality public
transport system…integrated transport system…etc”
[Who or what body is deciding this importance? What status does this have relative
to the objectives of S 2.4?] Comment (cont’d)
There is a lack of clarity on objectives for the ITP. The scope of works contains one
set; another set is listed in S2.4, but the ‘informants’ of s2.2.1 and even the summary
of Chapter 5 can also be interpreted as objectives. This multiplicity leads to a lack of
clear direction. Extracts to illustrate are given in Appendix A.
Throughout the document there is a lack of clear and logical linkages between the
levels of value-statements (the “value- chain”). The vision appears well linked to the
objectives of S2.4, but the links between visions (S2), objectives (S 2.4), informants (S
2.2.1 and also S4), (S 2.3) goals , strategies (S 6) and indicators (Table 2) are not well
made. This results in a lack of clarity for the reader on the real intentions of the City.

ACTIONS

1. Include the latest Spatial Development Framework visions in the ITP
2. Reflect on the differing versions of objectives – which are key? These should
follow through the whole document.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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2. HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE and ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
The ITP should:
– Include a review of the whole system as well as its parts
– Consider equity issues within the current and future generations and deal with
resource use, over-consumption, poverty, human rights and access to services
– Review ecological conditions
– Consider economic development and other non-market conditions which
contribute to human/social wellbeing

Comment
The ITP is a comprehensive document. The transport register, which is the
quantitative description of Cape Town’s transport system runs to 120 pages, almost
one third of the document but what is missing 3 , is an equally comprehensive
treatment of the cross-cutting issues described in the vision (world-class,
sustainable, ‘all’, safety, effectiveness and efficiency). These are dealt with only very
briefly in Chapter 5, or in passing elsewhere. Holistic issues mentioned in the Bellagio
principle (poverty, human rights, access to services, ecology, human/social
wellbeing) are not well covered.
Further more, the wording of ‘all’ in the ITP vision is open to interpretation. In the
context of a sustainable vision, we would suggest that “moves all people” brings
attention to current inequities in the system, with respect to access to work, school,
heath opportunities, or simple ability to freely access public facilities In unpacking
this aspect of the vision, the ITP document focuses on special needs users, or the
issues of goods, and ignores access inequities due to income, class or race.
Extract (Page 13 – Unpacking the City’s Transport Vision)
“All people and goods: The vision also requires that the system cater not only for the
fit and able bodied, but also for all categories of special needs users, which include
children, the elderly, the infirm and so on. Simultaneously, it recognizes that without
the movement of goods, people would have no access to many of the necessities of
life such as food, clothing and shelter and thus freight transport must be
appropriately accommodated.”
Despite the high profile given to equity in all guiding visions for the ITP (as shown in
Table 1), equity receives a very small profile in this ITP document. This is the biggest
3 Aside from considerations of the economy which are frequently described.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

6

missing component of the ITP and requires a new perspective on data collection as
well as on implementation. Fully considering issues of equity requires data needs to
be disaggregated by income and area, and for processes to be developed to ensure
that happens.
Extract
Source Statement ITP
Page

City of
Cape
Town
Draft
ITP
To provide a world-class sustainable transport system that moves all
its people and goods effectively, efficiently, safely and affordably
10

Draft
SDF
The goal of the SDF is to achieve sustainable, equitable and managed
growth.

SDF

Integr
ated
Devel
op-
ment
Plan
A prosperous City in which City Government creates an enabling
environment for shared growth and economic development
A City known for its effective and equitable services delivery
A City that distinguishes itself as a well-governed and efficiently run
administration

11

Provincial Land
Transport
Framework

The best Provincial transport system and property infrastructure for
all

11

National
Department of
Transport

Provide safe, reliable, effective, efficient, and fully integrated
transport operations and infrastructure which will best meet the
needs of freight and passenger customers at improving levels of
service and cost in a fashion which supports government strategies
for economic and social development being environmentally and
economically sustainable.

12

Table 1: Equity/ sharing/social guiding statements

Actions are given on next page…

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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ACTIONS

1. Develop research, data collection, learning and cross-professional working
processes in the City in order to better link the transport work to the more
holistic perspectives (of, for example, health and education, planning,
environmental, economic and social development professionals).
2. In particular, disaggregate and reinforce data collection to illustrate the
differences in transport across the city and so highlight equity and poverty
issues.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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3. ADEQUATE SCOPE
The ITP should:
– Define the space of study large enough to include not only local but also long
distance impacts on people and ecosystems
– Build on historic and current conditions to anticipate future conditions
– Adopt a time horizon long enough to capture both human and ecosystem time
scales thus responding to the needs of future generations as well as short term
decision-making

Comment
The ITP pays due regard to the role of the City in the broader fabric of the Province
and region, and there is some historical analysis of trends, although weaknesses in
City transport data are identified several times as real constraints on analytical work.
SEA also found this to be a severe problem in the operation of transport planning in
the City.
There is little discussion of long term future scenarios which could fundamentally
shift the current notion of transport in the City. For example, change in future
transport due to shifts in oil availability or price is mentioned only once 4 . More
consideration of the longer term would cement the vision of sustainability.

ACTIONS

1. The data collection capacity in the City is not strong, and this is reflected in a
lack of much historical analysis, disaggregate, holistic or scenario planning in
the ITP. This needs to be addressed through a data collection strategy to
support the future ITP process.
2. Long term scenario planning is not evident in the ITP, and some simple
scenario thinking needs to be part of a sustainability-centred approach, to
feed into longer term decision-making.

4 In section 8.6.1.3, under the Mayor’s argument for the IRT.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

9

4. PRACTICAL FOCUS
The ITP should:
– Include a framework that links vision and objectives to indicators and assessment
criteria
– Have a limited number of key issues and indicators for analysis
– Standardize measurement with other assessment frameworks wherever possible
– Compare indicators with other reference cases, where possible

Comment
Some of these points have been addressed already in this review, and linkages are
seen by the review team to be a significant weakness in the current ITP. The focus on
“a limited number of key issues” is highly relevant to South Africa, given the real
resource constraints in local government. The current document is highly
comprehensive, but in our view it is not sufficiently discerning about what is key for
the next period.
Putting these key issues into operation will require measurable targets and
indicators, and despite much work in this area, the current draft discusses them very
little, although they are presented in Table 2.
Whatever indicators are finally chosen it is essential that they are linked to the
chosen clear objectives of the policy. The indicator work by SEA in partnership with
the City as part of the Tran:SIT programme were developed with this in mind, and
are attached for reference in Appendix B.

ACTIONS

1. In the short-term, using the agreed vision and clear objectives, develop
suitable, Key Performance Indicators, which will be linked as directly as
possible, given data constraints, to the objectives set.
2. In the medium-term, develop the data set of the City so that all agreed
objectives may be measured.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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5. OPENNESS
The ITP should:
– Make explicit any judgments and assumptions
– Make methods and data used accessible, and be explicit about uncertainties in data

Comment – judgments and assumptions
The document is inconsistent in its ‘voice’, and it is frequently unclear whether the
consultant is speaking through the text (for example in section 2.2.1), or whether the
City is speaking. In a policy document it is inappropriate for a consultants’ voice to
speak normatively unless this is made clear.
The Scope of Works for the ITP, and hence the ITP itself, is external stakeholder
focused and places little emphasis on “institutionalizing the ITP” (that is, making sure
its recommendations become embedded in the way the City operates). This also
contributes to a lack of clarity in the ITP, with a mix in the text between suggestions
for the City, the City partners, or others.
Also, the process by which projects are on the project list and allocated budget is not
at all clear. The projects are not linked to any objectives, and they are not analysed
against in the document against any criteria. The reader is unable to discern how the
project decisions were made.
Comment – methods and data
Generally the analytical basis for the ITP is poor due to poor data availability, and the
consultants appear to have made good use of the data which is available. This
matter of poor data has been raised several times and is pressing given the
significant capital and maintenance budgets spent by the transport departments.
The Tran:SIT project found that transport data available in Cape Town is poor even
by the standards of other developing countries, and needs to be addressed as a
matter of urgency.

ACTIONS

1. The current ITP document needs to be clear about the voice used: when is
the City speaking, when is the consultant speaking.
2. Recommended actions, sorted according to the target, need to be extracted
from the text, for clarity.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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3. The summary motivations and assessment frameworks for all budgeted
schemes need to be presented in the ITP.
4. As a matter of urgency, data on transport in the City needs to be dramatically
improved, in order to prioritise and justify expenditure.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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6. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
The ITP should:
– Be designed to address the needs of the audience and users
– Be simple in structure and using clear, plain language
– Be stimulating and engaging for decision-makers

Comment
On this item the ITP is failing. The report is too long and is sometimes repetitive
ordifficult to follow. In places City policy is difficult to identify, or to separate from
statements of information, or opinion. The length and lack of clarity is especially
problematic given Cape Town’s language diversity, the number of readers for whom
English is a second language, and the importance of transport to the City.
The ITP does not provide much summary information which will engage the decision-
makers, in particular related to how money has been spent or is intended to be
spent. The projects are listed in an Appendix and no detail about them is given;
abbreviations are not explained; the location of the projects is difficult to establish
and summaries are not available. Given that expenditure over the next period is
suggested to rise 21 fold from 74 million in 2008-2009 to over 1.6 billion in 2010, the
public have a right to expect more information about planned expenditure.

Actual and planned annual expenditure

0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000

2008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-2013

Year
Figure 1: Actual and planned expenditure

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

13

Expenditure by Project Classification: Completed
N2 Gateway
41%

Unclassified
29%
Roads
17%
NMT
6%
Traffic
management
6%

Safety and
security
0%

Parking
1%
PT
0%

Figure 2: 2008-2009 Expenditure by project classification

2008-2009
Ave 2010-2012

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700

Figure 3: Actual 2008-2009 and planned average 2009-2012 expenditure compared
This dramatic increase in expenditure would require a human resource and
management strategy which is not mentioned in any detail in the ITP.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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ACTIONS

1. Undertake a thorough edit of the ITP and remove repetition and
inconsistencies
2. Edit to reduce the length of the document, and produce a crisp, short,
Executive Summary
3. Edit to clearly highlight statements of policy, proposed objectives,
performance indicators and action steps. Clearly demarcate text which is
background information from proposed policy (The Air Quality Management
Plan for the City of Cape Town performs well on this type of clarity).
4. Involve translators and editors to assist in making the document clearer, and
simpler.
5. Involve graphic design experts to assist in developing a simpler, clearer and
more accessible layout
6. Pilot all of this with public and (especially) key decision makers to ensure
effective communication
7. Produce summary analyses of the existing and planned expenditure of the
transport budgets, which talk to the fiscal interests of the decision-makers in
the City.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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7. BROAD PARTICIPATION
The ITP should
– Obtain broad representation of key grass-roots, professional, technical and social
groups, including youth, women, and PDIs – to ensure recognition of diverse and
changing values
– Ensure the participation of decision-makers to secure a firm link to adopted policies
and resulting action

Comment
It is too early in the documentation of the ITP process to comment on this piece

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

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8. ONGOING MONITORING and INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY
The ITP should
– Monitor progress towards sustainable development, which means it should:
Help to develop an in-house capacity for monitoring sustainable development trends
Clearly assign responsibility and provide ongoing support to this function
Provide capacity for data collection and analysis
Be iterative, adaptive and responsive to change and uncertainty
Be able to adjust visions, objectives and indicators as values change and insights are
gained
Promote collective learning and feedback to decision makers

Comment
The legally framed ITP process, with required reviews, enables ongoing high-level
monitoring. However, the current ITP does not contain a detailed 5 strategy for
monitoring, does not talk to short, medium or long-term monitoring and also
confuses the possible types of monitoring.
Monitoring can be divided into main four types: institutional inputs, institutional
outputs; sectoral outcomes; and impacts. The input is what ‘feeds’ the City process
and is essentially staff and money. The input is converted by a City process into an
output. The output is what the City authority produces, such as, for example: an ITP,
a procedure for assessment, a design, a budget allocation. These are outputs which
are fully under the control of the City. An outcome is what is produced on the ground
due to partnership with other institutions, such as, for example: 12km of BRT, a
Public Transport Committee; an NMT Forum. These outcomes require other actors
to join, and can be influenced by the City, but are not fully under the City’s control.
An impact is what happens to the recipients of the City’s work, the general public,
and is usually a downstream, or long-term measurable. The City has some influence
over impacts but a whole system of other actors also play a role in outcomes and
impacts.
In terms of monitoring it is important to consider all four: inputs, outputs, outcomes,
and impacts, but as for changing an organization towards a goal such as

5 Monitoring is mentioned throughout the document, but the implications of this for the in-house
City operations is not discussed in detail.

PART ONE: EVALUATION AGAINST BELLAGIO PRINCIPLES

17

sustainability, output monitoring is a priority, as this will bring attention to the City
processes which can (and should) change in order to meet objectives. At present this
is not considered at all in the ITP, although it is mentioned in passing at several
stages.

Figure 4: Inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts
Finally, learning is not a theme in the ITP, and yet in order to shift towards
sustainability, and change the procedures within the City which do not fit the new
paradigm, then the City will need to move towards a ‘learning organisation’ model 6 .

ACTIONS

1. As the next step to having clear objectives, develop KPIs to monitor them.
2. As a further step, develop targets for the outputs of the institution (the City),
linked to each objective, with measurable outputs and deadlines attached.
3. Develop a strategy for collective learning.

6 Peter Senge, who wrote “The Fifth Discipline” amongst other books created the idea of the learning
organization which reinvents itself in order to address the new challenges it faces. See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_organization for an introduction and links.

Output for
partner but
outcome for City Impact (or effect)
for City

Output for City
City
activities City partner
activities
(SARCC,
taxis,
Golden
Arrow…) Users

Input

Input

PART TWO: PRACTICAL EVALUATION

18

8. PRACTICAL EVALUATION
Is this new ITP likely to deliver more sustainable transport up until 2011?
Does this ITP create a solid foundation for sustainable ITPs into the future?

Comment
In the view of the evaluating team, the project commitments and the generally
supportive tone of the ITP towards sustainability, indicate that the short term
practical outcome for sustainable transport is good, and this ITP is likely to deliver a
more sustainable transport outcome, if budgets are made available. The move
towards the IRT and NMT are particularly noteworthy.
In the longer term, however, the evaluation team has a number of concerns:
1. The ITP does not have a strong “value-chain” hierarchy, which would:
 Give guidance for every level of the organization, in support of the
overall vision
 Promote organisational instead of individual agendas
 Create structures for checking progress is towards the shared vision
 Avoid ‘creep’ of vision and help create ‘robust’ organisations (which
can maintain its core values despite personnel changes)

2. Although the text mentions several times good suggestins for what could
change inside the City, the ITP does not summarise these and give more
detailed strategies for what needs to change in-house, and so the ITP does
not give clear institutional direction to the City. In the medium term, the City
will need to shift how it works, in order to shift what its outcomes are, and to
move more effectively towards sustainability.
3. The ITP does not have Key Performance Indicators as Key in the document.
KPIs are important since they focus the mind on:
• What is important for success
• Has it been achieved?
• Are we making progress?
In practice, human beings can hold very little new information, and so it is
important to have a “golden page” of indicators to focus on, and an
organisation and hierarchy in support of these.

APPENDIX A: VERSIONS OF OBJECTIVES IN THE ITP

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From the Scope of works
To achieve the City’s transport vision, it has identified the following strategic
objectives that set the framework for the ITP document, namely;
1. To strive towards a complete and balanced sustainable transport
system.
2. To promote Public Transport over the private car.
3. To promote travel demand management measures to reduce total
vehicle travel kilometers, especially during the commuter peak periods.
4. To align transport and land-use planning to positively influence
commuter distances.
5. To promote and encourage Non Motorised Transport and Universal
access.
6. To provide a safe, efficient and well managed road network that
enhances the efficiency of public transport.
7. To ensure an efficient and safe movement of freight within the City.
8. To develop and implement a transport asset management plan.
From Section 2.2.1 Informants to the City Visions (implied objectives)
1. A more compact city
2. A good quality public transport system
3. A well functioning integrated transport system that supports a growing
economy and the needs of freight movement
4. A transport system that reflects environmental sensitivities
5. A transport system that discourages unsustainable transport modes such as
the single occupancy vehicle and prioritises PT and NMT
From Section 2.4 Objectives
To systematically and ultimately eliminate fatal and serious injury accidents and to
significantly reduce all accidents
To promote TDM measures, limiting private car usage and improving road safety
To align transport and land use planning to bring about a land-use pattern where the
necessity to travel, especially by car, is minimised
To promote sustainable travel patterns by encouraging walking, cycling and the use
of public transport
To improve safety and security at interchanges, station car parks, and en-route to
interchances and stations
To provide better maintenance of facilities
To provide non-motorised transport facilities and include their requirements in
Traffic Impact STudies
To protect the environment from pollution through reduced vehicle emissions
To manage the road network so that the current road space is optimized, and to only
invest in new roads where it provides accessibility and support to public trnasport
To promote and incorporate the principles of Universal Access in the design and

APPENDIX A: VERSIONS OF OBJECTIVES IN THE ITP

20
construction of transport infrastructure
To support the use of rail for freight use and to manage road based freight vehicles
To provide safe and convenient cycle and motor-cycle parking at stations, leisure
facilities, public facilities and within employment areas (CBDs)
To apply reduced parking standards for developments in CBDs and that are on major
public transport routes
To make better use of existing parking facilities – municipal and privately owned car
parks should be made available for variable land use developments to increase their
utilization and return to the City
To provide safe and affordable Park and Ride facilities at stations and other key sites.
To provide safe access to new developments through the application of the Roads
Access Policy
To incorporate self-enforcing traffic calming measures in the design of new
residential areas, and to apply the traffic calming policy for existing areas
Chapter 5.6: Summary –“Most urgent needs of the City”
Comprehensive and integrated public transport
Integrated and effective planning, implementation and monitoring of transport
through KPIs
Development of transportation and land-use policies to encourage a desirable and
sustainable environment for all communities
Promote education and development of skills, resources and manpower
Promote appropriate enforcement of all aspects of transportation
Encourage investment and development contributions in the most appropriate forms
of transportation services and infrastructure

21

14 October 2008

Sustainable
Transport
Indicators: Data

Objectives
•Recap the existing indicator set and
understand the proposed ‘core’
sustainable transport indicators, and their
use within the City –ITP integration,
project assessment
•Establish data limitations
•Put actions in place to
–deal with data issues
–Integrate with ITP, project review process

Outstanding Items to be flagged
•Household income link to transport
•Mobility disadvantage
•Are these indicators keeping to the IDP
implementation framework?
•Do these indicators align with budget
allocations?

1. Energy Use
1. Energy Use

2006Source2001Source
Diesel (l)718,429,201SAPIA517,069,766CT State of Energy Report 2003
Petrol (l)1,240,140,235SAPIA1,188,430,310CT State of Energy Report 2003
Total1,958,571,4421,705,502,077
% Increase15%
Source: Sapia
Per Capita

2. Emissions
kg CO2/l
Diesel2.7
Petrol2.331
20062001
Diesel (t CO2)1,939,7591,396,088
Petrol (t CO2)2,890,7672,770,231
Total4,830,5264,166,319
% Increase16%
Simple multiplication of indicator 1 with emissions factors in yellow above

3.1 Full Modal Split (AM)

No of
commuters
Avgcommuter
kms
Total commuter
kmsSplit by commuters
Split by commuter
kms
Rail17698224430243819% of total 30%of total
Road
Based PT22949615337588925% of total 24%of total
Sub-tot
PT40297819760823344% of total 54%of total
Car51612712644642956% of total 46%of total
Total 9226061614300388100%100%
Source: 2007 EMME Transport Model based on 2004 Household
survey, 2001 census, info from spacialplanning and urban design
**Trip length distribution data -confirm***
NMT –sole mode

3.2 Full Modal Split (Full Day)

Source: Expansion factor of 3 used on EMME Transport Model
based on 2004 Household survey, 2001 census, info from spacial
planning and urban design
No of
commuters
Avg
commuter
kms
Total
commuter
kmsSplit by commuters
Split by commuter
kms
Rail176982721274270419% of total 30%of total
Road Based PT229496451032732025% of total 24%of total
Sub-tot PT402978572296974644% of total 54%of total
Car516127361858057256% of total 46%of total
Total 9226064844285088100%100%

4.1 Public Transport: Use
ModeFleetPass/dayTrips/dayVeh-km/dayPass-km/daySurvey Year
Minibus7,470 293,164 53,372 682,751 4,106,884 2005/06
Bus1,061 197,129 5,279 125,423 5,820,065 2004
Rail78 634,425 622 25,184 8,621,323 2007
2006 Data only
2007 Data available Dec 2008
Source: CPTR

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4.2 Public Transport: Coverage

Mode
Total Route km
(1 direction)Notes
Minibus155002006/07 survey data should be available by Dec08
Bus418542007 survey data should be available by Dec08
Rail1,550
2006 Data only
2007 Data available Dec 2008
Source: CPTR/GIS
% population within 500m of public transport

4.3 Public Transport: Service
Frequency

Source: CPTR Summary 2004/5
Add night off peak
Ave/hr/period
No of routes: bus: BRT: taxi, with frequency >2 vehicles per hour
2004/5AM TotalAM %Inter TotalInter %PMPM %
BusNo Data
Taxi40073%30055%40073%
TrainNo Data
2005/6AM TotalAM %Inter TotalInter %PMPM %
Bus
Taxi
Train

Total no of taxi
routes (2004/5)550
Total no of bus
routes (2004/5)1530

4.4 Public Transport: Security
•Golden Arrow didn’t want to indicate –said
it was ‘insignificant’and didn’t want to
attract attention. City interchange info
•Rail: SAPS/ Metro police? Possible to gain
data?
•Taxi interchanges: SAPS/City
-Transport interchange managers
-How secure is accessing service?
-Metroraildata available?
-Spent on security?
-Own workshop with people directly involved with security

5. Congestion on Major freight

routes
Ave speed
Major freight routes200420052006
N1
N2
R27
Source???
Time period consideration
Include rail?

6. Congestion on peak hour
commuter routes
Ave speed
Major freight routes200420052006
N1
N2
R27
Source: SANRAL, City section data
Travel speed/mode

7. Loss of Life and Livelihood
20052004
%
Increase/Decrease
Accidents85398783339%
Fatalities660689-4%
Serious injuries1631717829-8%
Source: Accident report

8. Urban Quality
•Percentage of project money spent which
has improved the quality of the City's
urban fabric
•How to measure this? CoCTurban
planner?
People activity levels????
Money spent???
Independent review from urban planning dept???
Quantitative analysis –need urban planner input, property values??
Expenditure on road types -breakdown
Inputs not outputs

Thank You
Andrew Janisch
andrew@sustainable.org.za
021-7023622
0849558130

Note these indicators are the “best” set, based on data available at the City and are
not “optimum” (as they exclude, for example, equity indicators).

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